The Big 5 Personality Traits: The Five Factor Model

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Understanding the Five Broad Dimensions of Personality: an Introduction

Personality traits are the distinguishing characteristics that shape how individuals think, feel, and behave in their daily lives. One of the most widely recognised personality models is The Big 5 Personality Traits, also known as the Five-Factor Model (FFM).

The Big 5 personality traits are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. In this article, we will take an in-depth look at the Big 5 personality traits, their history and development, how they are assessed, and also their potential applications in real life.

A Brief History of the Big Five Personality Types

It wasn’t until the 1980s that the Five-Factor Model emerged as the most widely accepted and empirically supported model of personality. The development of the Big 5 personality traits model was based on the observation of common patterns in people’s language when describing themselves and others.

Big 5 Personality traits graphic with hand palm and number five
Let’s focus on the BIG 5 personality traits


Researchers then used factor analysis to identify the five broad dimensions that could account for most of the variation in people’s descriptions of personality. These dimensions were then named Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, and have since been consistently validated in numerous studies around the world.

In the following sections, we will delve into each of these personality traits in more detail, discussing their characteristics, measurement, and real-life implications.

Related reading: Check out our ultimate guide on Myers Briggs.

The Five Personality Types: A Closer Look

The Big 5 personality traits, also known as the Five-Factor Model, are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.

Each trait in this personality trait list represents a broad dimension of human personality that describes how individuals think, feel, and also behave in different situations.

In this section, we will take a closer look at each of the Big 5 personality traits.

Female looking through a magnifying glass at the Big 5 Personality traits
Let’s take a closer look!


1. Openness: Exploring New Ideas and Experiences

The openness personality trait is characterised by an individual’s willingness to explore new ideas, experiences, and also perspectives. Additionally, people who score high in Openness tend to be creative, imaginative, curious, and open-minded. On the contrary, individuals who score low in Openness tend to be more conventional, practical and focused on the familiar.

This trait, therefore, not only influences the range of experiences individuals seek but also shapes their creative and cognitive inclinations. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in determining the extent to which individuals embrace novelty in various aspects of their lives.

Occupations Associated with High Openness:
  • Artist
  • Writer
  • Research Scientist
  • Travel Blogger
Occupations Associated with Low Openness:
  • Accountant
  • Office Manager
  • Police Officer
  • Financial Analyst

2. Conscientiousness: Being Organised and Responsible

Conscientiousness is characterised by an individual’s level of organisation, responsibility, and self-discipline. People who score high in Conscientiousness tend to be reliable, organised, and goal-oriented. They also tend to be responsible and dependable in their relationships. Individuals who score low in Conscientiousness tend to be more impulsive and also less organised.

Occupations Associated with High Conscientiousness:
  • Project Manager
  • Accountant
  • Surgeon
  • Librarian
Occupations Associated with Low Conscientiousness:
  • Actor/Actress
  • Artist
  • Chef
  • Salesperson

3. Extraversion: Being Outgoing and Social

Extraversion is characterised by an individual’s social engagement, assertiveness, and enthusiasm. People who score high in Extraversion tend to be outgoing, social, and talkative. They enjoy being around people and thrive in social situations. They are also often assertive and confident in their interactions with others. Individuals who score low in Extraversion tend to be more introverted and also prefer solitude to socialise.

Occupations Associated with High Extraversion:
  • Sales Representative
  • Event Planner
  • Teacher
  • Public Relations Specialist
Occupations Associated with Low Extraversion:
  • Data Analyst
  • Computer Programmer
  • Librarian
  • Writer

4. Agreeableness: Being Cooperative and Compassionate

Agreeableness is characterised by an individual’s level of compassion, cooperativeness, and empathy. People who score high in Agreeableness tend to be considerate, cooperative, and compassionate. They also tend to be accommodating in their relationships. Individuals who score low in Agreeableness tend to be more competitive and also less concerned about the needs of others.

Occupations Associated with High Agreeableness:
  • Counsellor
  • Nurse
  • Social Worker
  • Human Resources Manager
Occupations Associated with Low Agreeableness:
  • Lawyer
  • Engineer
  • Critic
  • Research Scientist

5. Neuroticism: Experiencing Negative Emotions

A neuroticism personality trait is characterised by an individual’s level of emotional instability, anxiety, and moodiness. People who score high in Neuroticism tend to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, fear, and sadness more frequently and intensely than those who score low in Neuroticism.

They are also more prone to stress and tend to worry more about potential negative outcomes. Individuals who score low in Neuroticism tend to be more emotionally stable and resilient in the face of stress and adversity.

Occupations Associated with High Neuroticism:
  • Social Worker
  • Customer Service Representative
  • Actor/Actress
  • Emergency Room Nurse
Occupations Associated with Low Neuroticism:
  • Pilot
  • Police Officer
  • Engineer
  • Computer Programmer
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Who Developed the Big 5 Personality Traits?

  • Gordon Allport: The Father of Trait Theory

One of the earliest psychologists to study personality traits was Gordon Allport.

Allport is considered the “father of trait theory” and is credited with developing one of the first comprehensive models of personality traits. His work laid the foundation for the development of the Big 5 personality traits theory.

Allport believed that personality traits were the building blocks of personality and that they could be studied through the analysis of language.

  • Raymond Cattell: The Father of Factor Analysis

Another influential psychologist in the development of the Big 5 personality traits was Raymond Cattell. Cattell developed the 16 Personality Factors (16PF) questionnaire, which became one of the most widely used personality tests in the 20th century.

Founders of the Big 5 Personality trait Gordon Allport and Raymond Cattell
Meet the founders


Utilising the Big 5 Personality Traits: A Practical Guide

Understanding and applying the Big 5 personality traits can provide valuable insights into various aspects of life, from personal development to interpersonal relationships as well.

Here’s a guide on how to effectively use the Big 5 model:

1. Self-Reflection and Personal Growth:

  • Regularly assess your own Big 5 traits through self-reflection or reputable personality assessments.
  • Identify areas of strength and weakness in each trait.
  • Set personalised goals for personal development based on your trait profiles accordingly.

2. Career Planning and Job Satisfaction:

  • Consider how your personality traits align with different career paths.
  • Explore professions that match your strengths, such as conscientious individuals thriving in organised and detail-oriented roles.
  • Recognise the importance of cultural influences on trait preferences in various job environments.

3. Enhancing Interpersonal Relationships:

  • Understand the personality traits of those around you, including friends, family, and colleagues.
  • Adapt communication styles based on the traits of others for more effective interactions accordingly.
  • Foster empathy and understanding by considering the diverse traits present in your social circle.

4. Team Building in the Workplace:

  • Form well-balanced teams by considering a mix of Big 5 traits for diverse perspectives.
  • Recognise the strengths of each team member and allocate tasks accordingly.
  • Address potential conflicts by understanding how personality traits may influence team dynamics.

5. Educational and Academic Success:

  • Tailor study habits and learning styles to align with your dominant personality traits.
  • Recognise the impact of openness to experience on creativity and adaptability in educational settings.
  • Collaborate with peers who possess complementary traits for more effective group projects.

By incorporating these practical steps, you can harness the power of the Big 5 personality traits for personal development, enriching relationships, and also navigating various aspects of life.

How Can You Identify Your Big 5 Personality Traits?

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Let’s investigate further!


The Big 5 personality traits can be recognised through various methods, such as self-report questionnaires, peer ratings, and behavioural observations.

Here, we will explore effective strategies for recognising and understanding your Big 5 personality traits.

#1. Self-report Questionnaires: Assessing Personality Through Self-reflection

Self-report questionnaires are the most commonly used approach to measure the Big 5 personality types. For example, a statement related to extraversion might be “I enjoy socialising with others.” Respondents would then rate how much they agree with the statement. Self-report questionnaires are a useful tool for assessing an individual’s perception of their personality.

#2. Peer Ratings: Gathering Insight From Others

Peer ratings are another approach to measuring the Big 5 personality traits. Peers may include friends, family members, co-workers, or supervisors. Peer ratings can provide a different perspective on an individual’s personality and can also help to identify blind spots that may not be apparent in self-report questionnaires. For instance, a self-assessed extraverted individual may receive lower extraversion ratings from colleagues who observe a more reserved communication style, revealing potential blind spots in self-perception.

#3. Behavioural Observations: Examining Actions and Interactions

Behavioural observations are a more objective approach to measuring the Big 5 personality traits. For example, an observer may assess an individual’s level of assertiveness or sociability during a group activity. However, this approach can be time-consuming and impractical in all situations.

Importance of the Big 5 Personality Traits

Sticky notes with the word WHY on yellow background
Now let’s discover why the Big 5 personality traits are so important


The Big 5 personality traits have been studied extensively and are important for a variety of outcomes in life, including career success, interpersonal relationships, and overall well-being.

In this section, we will take a closer look at why the Big 5 personality traits are so important.

1. Career Success: The Big 5 Personality Traits and Job Performance

Individuals who score high in conscientiousness, for example, are more likely to be reliable, organised, and responsible, which are all important qualities in many jobs such as Project Managers, Accountants, and Executive Assistants. Additionally, openness to experience can be an asset in creative or innovative jobs like Graphic Designers, Research Scientists, and Creative Writers.

2. Interpersonal Relationships: Understanding Others and Ourselves

The Big 5 personality traits can also help us to understand and navigate our interpersonal relationships. By understanding our personality traits, we can better understand our strengths and weaknesses and work to improve our communication and interactions with others. For instance, someone with low agreeableness may actively work on developing empathy and cooperation skills to enhance their relationships, fostering better understanding and harmony in their personal and professional connections.

3. Overall Well-Being: Relationship to Mental Health and Life Satisfaction

The Big 5 personality traits are also related to overall well-being, including mental health and life satisfaction. Individuals who score high in extraversion and agreeableness may be more satisfied with their lives, as they may have more fulfilling social relationships and experiences. For example, an extroverted and agreeable person may actively seek and maintain positive social connections, contributing to a higher sense of well-being and life satisfaction.

Cultural Differences in the Expression of the Big 5 Personality Traits

How these types are expressed can vary depending on cultural norms and values.

Businesswoman in hijab researching The big 5 personality traits on her laptop
Culture can impact one’s personality trait


So in this section, we will take a closer look at cultural differences in the expression of the Big 5 personality traits.

1. Individualism vs. Collectivism: Extraversion and Agreeableness

Individualistic cultures tend to value assertiveness and independence, which are associated with higher levels of extraversion. In contrast, individuals from collectivistic cultures may place greater emphasis on harmony and interdependence, leading them to be less likely to express themselves assertively or dominantly. For instance, someone from a collectivistic culture might prioritise group cohesion over individual assertiveness in social interactions.

2. Power Distance: Conscientiousness and Neuroticism

Power distance refers to the extent to which individuals in a culture accept and expect an unequal distribution of power. In high power distance cultures, there is more emphasis on obedience and conformity, which are associated with higher levels of conscientiousness. Consequently, this cultural inclination may lead individuals to prioritise adherence to established norms and authority. Moreover, this also showcases a heightened conscientious approach to their actions and behaviours.

3. Uncertainty Avoidance: Openness to Experience

Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which individuals in a culture feel threatened by ambiguity or uncertainty. In cultures with high uncertainty avoidance, individuals may perceive new experiences as risky or unpredictable. Moreover, this heightened aversion to uncertainty often results in a preference for established routines and traditions, as individuals seek stability and predictability in their surroundings. This also leads to a tendency to be less open to them. As a result, individuals in these cultures may score lower on openness to experience.

The Potential Limitations of the Big 5 Personality Traits Model

When interpreting the findings, one should consider some potential limitations to the model. In this section, we will explore some of these limitations.

  • The Narrowness of the Model:

First of all, the Big 5 model is limited in that it only measures five dimensions of personality, which may not capture the full complexity of an individual’s personality. For example, the model does not measure specific personality traits such as empathy, humour, or gratitude. This may be important for understanding an individual’s behaviour and emotions.

Western cultures have primarily developed and validated the Big 5 model; therefore, it may not fully capture the unique characteristics of other cultures. Certain languages may not have exact translations for the Big 5 traits, this makes it difficult to measure these traits accurately in different cultures.

  • Self-report Bias:

The Big 5 model relies on self-reported assessments of personality, which can be subject to response biases. For example, individuals may want to present themselves in a positive light or may not be fully aware of their personality traits. Additionally, individuals may answer questions in a way that they believe is socially desirable, rather than reflecting their true personality.

  • Lack of Explanation for the Development of the 5 Big Personality Types:

The Big 5 model does not provide an explanation for how personality develops or changes over time. While the model can provide insight into an individual’s current personality, it does not provide insight into how personality may have developed or how it may change in the future.

Applications of the Big 5 Personality Traits in Real Life

In this section, we will explore some of the applications of the Big 5 model in real life.

Application for The big 5 personality traits on a laptop screen on a desk
Finally, explore these useful applications of the Big 5 personality traits


  • Education and Career Development

The Big 5 model can be useful in education and career development by helping individuals identify their strengths and weaknesses. A high score in openness may indicate that an individual is creative and adaptable. This also makes them well-suited for a career in the arts or technology. Understanding one’s personality can also help choose a career path that aligns with one’s values and interests.

  • Relationship Building

The Big 5 model can also be useful in building and maintaining relationships. By understanding one’s personality traits, individuals can better understand how they interact with others and also what they may need from others to feel fulfilled.

For example, a person with a high score in agreeableness may be more likely to value interpersonal harmony and may benefit from relationships with others who prioritise kindness and cooperation. A person with a high score in extraversion may be more likely to benefit from social activities and may also seek out relationships with others who are outgoing and friendly.

  • Personal Development

A person with a low score in emotional stability (i.e., high neuroticism) may benefit from practising stress-reduction techniques. Similarly, a person with a low score in extraversion may benefit from intentionally seeking out social opportunities to build social skills and confidence. Individuals can develop strategies to improve their lives and well-being by identifying areas for growth.

  • Clinical Settings

Individuals with high scores in neuroticism may be more prone to anxiety or depression, while individuals with low scores in conscientiousness may be more likely to struggle with substance abuse or impulse control. Thus by understanding an individual’s personality traits, clinicians can also tailor treatment strategies to meet their specific needs.


In conclusion, the Big 5 personality traits provide a comprehensive framework for understanding human personality. Each of the five traits represents a broad dimension of personality that captures important aspects of an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

By understanding the Big 5 personality traits, we can gain insight into our personality and the personalities of those around us. Additionally, we can use this knowledge to improve our personal relationships, career success, and overall well-being.

Updated on: January 30, 2024

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